Influence of Governmental Agencies in the Development of Nursing Research

Learning Team CMaria Roselyn Calungcaguin
Micah Elizabeth Nance
,Jennifer Perlmutter
Marsha Powell
Lynne Ordoyne

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1984
The National Institute of Nursing Research (NINR)
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A Brief History
NINR is one of 27 institutes that make up the National Institute of Health (NIH), which is the federal focal point for health research. The NIH roots were established in 1887 when a laboratory, “the laboratory of hygiene,” was created to examine immigrants arriving in the United States with clinical signs of infectious diseases (NIH, n.d.). This early work of the NIH focused on medical research, however, the establishment of the Division of Nursing within the Office of the Surgeon General in 1946 provided federal involvement in nursing research (NIH, n.d.). Throughout the 1950’s, 60’s, and 70’s federal funding was provided for nursing research, and in 1983 the NIH recommended that nursing research be included in the mainstream of biomedical and behavioral science. A study in 1984 identified the relevance of nursing research to the mission of NIH and resulted in the establishment of NCNR in 1986 (NINR, n.d.)

Important Events in NINR history

Mission of NINR
The mission of NINR is to: “Promote and improve the health of individuals, families, communities, and populations. NINR supports and conducts clinical and basic research, and research training on health and illness across the lifespan. NINR seeks to extend nursing science by integrating the biological and behavioral sciences, employing new technologies to research questions, improving research methods, and developing the scientists of the future” (NIH, 2011).
NINR Budget
In 2010 the NIH received $31,247 billion in federal funding. NINR received $145,000 million, which represents 0.47% of the total NIH budget (AACN, 2010).
NINR Research Goals
  1. Promoting health and preventing disease.
  2. Improving quality of life
  3. Eliminating health disparities
  4. Setting directions for end of life research

NINR Goals



1989
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The Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR)

The Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR) was established in 1989 and is now known as the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ). The agency comes under the umbrella of the Department of Health and Human Services, and supports research that improves the quality of health and helps people make informed healthcare decisions.

AHRQ at a glance






1990
Healthy People
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In 1990, the Department of Health and Human Services published Healthy People 2000: National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives. This was a plan developed by the Department of Health and Human Services to improve the health of Americans by the end of the century. Statistical data gathered through this plan provides good information, and a better understanding for medical researchers and helps improve the overall healthcare system.


Healthy People 2000




1993
The Cochrane Collaboration
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The Cochrane Collaboration is an international, independent, not-for-profit organization made up of more than 28,000 people from over 100 countries, named after Archie Cochrane, a British epidemiologist. This organization was created to guide healthcare providers, and provide consumers with the the best evidence based on the systematic reviews conducted by the organization's contributors. The systematic reveiws are conducted by preparing, updating, and promoting the accessibility of what is known as the Cochrane Reviews. The Cochrane Reviews can be located in the online Cochrane Library which allows patients, and other healthcare consumers to be involved or active in healthcare related issues.

The Cochrane Collaboration





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NIH Institute

NIH institute supports and provides funding for the development of the NIH Revitalization Act of 1993, which eventually became law. This act included minorities, women and children, in research studies. The expansion and incorporation of minorities as research studies filled the knowledge gap that existed in research and practice prior to developing this law. A federal registration notice on June 14, 1993 voted in an action formally changing the NCNR to NINR.

National Institute of Nursing Research






1999
The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality

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In 1999 the Agency for Health Care Policy and Research (AHCPR) was reauthorized, and renamed the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) in accordance to public law. Under this law the AHRQ is authorized to continue research on the cost, quality and outcomes of health care. The enforcement of this law has allowed the AHRQ to expand its current role by improving patient safety and addressing medical errors. Many healthcare delivery and medical effectiveness issues have been researched by funding provided by the AHRQ.

AHRQ Publication Catalog



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American Association of Colleges of Nursing
In 1999, the American Association of Colleges of Nursing published its position statement on research in nursing. The mission of this statement was to increase the use of scholarly works within the higher learning institutes, and within the academic nursing communities. This document provided a framework for the advancement of nursing knowledge that improved the health of people.

AACN




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Institute of Medicine

In 1999 the Institute of Medicine released a concensus report that focused on improving the quality of care delivered by healthcare providers, as a whole. The report titled, To Err is Human: Building A Safer Health System, raised the standards of providers by incoporating evidence-based research into practice. The aim of this report was to reduce medical errors, and provide patient's with the safest healthcare.

IOM Consensus Report









2000
Healthy People
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A comprehensive Nationwide Health Promotion & Disease Prevention Program started in 2000. Upon launching the initiative there were 467 objectives and 28 areas of focus. Nursing helped to support changes to practice along with measuring interventions to improve patient outcomes. Nursing helped with evidence-based action steps to develop standards for patient interventions. Nursing additionally influenced strategies toward prevention, health, and appropriate care measures with expected outcomes.

Healthy People 2010





2002
The Joint Commission

joint_commission.jpgIn 2002 The Joint Commission partnered with health care organizations and nursing professionals to research practices to find evidence of quality outcomes, set standards, and promote practice changes within nursing. The National Patient Safety Goals, Sentinel Event Alerts, and application of evidence-based practice resulted. The new focus on quality helps to promote patientsafety and ensure the best care delivery to every patient.

Patient areas of nursing focus was toward application in research on how to safety deliver medication, administer blood, ensure correct identification of patients, correct side/site surgical procedures, and prevent falls. Nursing research influenced and recommended changes toward exceeding mesaures, prevent harm, and promote quality patient outcomes.

http://www.jointcommission.org/assets/1/6/2006_Annual_Report.pdf










2007
National Institute of Nursing Researchexternal image ninr_master.gif

NINR Mission Statement
The National Institute of Nursing Research defines its mission by assisting all individuals in health promotion. The purpose of this organization is to conduct research studies and preparation that make sure science is the core of all research. The goal is to promote and expand nursing science and health care initiatives by combining science disciplines, using advancing technological skills and ideas, increasing the amount of future nurse researchers, and health care knowledge for all demographics.
NINR Strategic Plan
1. Enhancing health promotion and disease prevention
2. Improving quality of life by managing symptoms of acute and chronic illness
3. Improving palliative and end-of-life care
4. Enhancing innovation in science and practice
5. Developing the next generation of nurse scientist
Future Investing Funding Themes:















Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality
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In 2007, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality's mission is to enhance health care quality for all people. The organization assists people in making informed decisions pertaining to health care. AHRQ's goals are to improve the quality of health care in the United States with partnerships that aid in improving patient outcomes.
AHRQ Mission and Goals









Nursing Science- Nursing Research
The Future of Health Care




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Promoting Health- Achieving Quality- Preventing Harm




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