Nursing Research History Timeline: 1900-1950
Team A:
Amy Clarke, Cicily George, Jacqueline Hawkins-Johnson, Cynthia Hovnanian, and Bonnie Williams

1900-Florence Nightingale the 1st Nurse Scientist research

Florence Nightingale (1820-1910) was an advocate for a corp of nurses to provide nursing care to British troops during the Crimean war in 1856. Nightingale accompanied the corps of nurses and paid almost all of their expenses. Upon returning to England Nightingale began the first school of nursing at St. Thomas Hospital. Florence Nitingale addressed issues with physician not washing their hands.

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1902- Ellen Dougherty

Ellen Dougherty (September 20, 1844 to November 3, 1919) from New Zealand was the first Registered Nurse in the world. Dougherty received a certificate in Nursing 1887. She received her training at Wellington Hospital. Upon accepting a position at Palmerston North Hospital in 1901 she first addressed providing basic supplies for the hospital as antibiotics had not been discovered and hospitals used large quantities of linen to help prevent infections. In September 1901 New Zealand became the first country to have separate legislation for registration and regulation of nurses.

http://www.teara.govt.nz/en/biographies/2d15/1

1909-1911-American Nurses Association formed (ANA)

The ANA is more than 100 years old. It was founded in 1896 as the Nurses Alumnae Association, with 20 nurses attending the first meeting to create a professional association for nurses. However none of the nurses in attendance were registered nurses, s there were no licensing regulations for nursing at that time. In 1900the organization published the American Nurse, and one year later the first state first nursing legislation was formed to help regulated the practice of nursing. In 1911 the name of the organization was changed to tthe American Nurses Association. Over the the decades the organization has grown rapidly and the organization attempts to represent the interest of nurses around the world.

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http://nursingworld.org/FunctionalMenuCategories/AboutANA/History

1912- American Red Cross established 68 Rural Visiting Nurse Service programs providing home nurses.


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In the rural area the need for education on Home Hygiene and care of the sick was very high. The number of nurses available was not sufficient to educate the public. Lillian.D.Wald a public health nurse in urban center introduced the concept of nation wide rural nursing program. In 1912 The American Red cross Rural Nursing was established and was implemented through the local office under the supervision of national office. In the following years it became the town and country nursing. The nurses traveled on horseback, bicycle, and by car on poor roads under terrible weather conditions. They took care of families and provided nursing care at the bedside. Prevention through immunization, the detection and management of communicable diseases, and teaching and maintaining the sanitation were their important goals.

American Red Cross



1914- Dorothea Orem developed Self-Care Theory













1919- Faye Abdella Twenty One Nursing Problems

Abdellah spoke about patient-centered approaches, she wrote that nurses needs to identify and solve specific problems. This identification and classification of problems was called the typology of 21 nursing problems. Abdellah's typology was divided into three areas: (1) the physical, sociological, and emotional needs of the patient; (2) the types of interpersonal relationships between the nurse and the patient; and (3) the common elements of patient care. Adbellah and her colleagues thought the typology would provide a method to evaluate a student's experiences and also a method to evaluate a nurse's competency based on outcome measures.
Faye Abdella Twenty One Nursing Problems

1922- Sigma Theta Tau founded

Sigma Theta Tau International is the nursing honor society. In 1922 six nurses founded STTI at the Indiana Training School for Nurses, now known as the Indiana University School of Nursing. STTI has recognized the value of scholarship and excellence in nursing practice.

The mission of the Honor Society of Nursing, Sigma Theta Tau International is to support the learning, knowledge and professional development of nurses committed to making a difference in health worldwide. The vision of SSTI is to create a global community of nurses who lead in using knowledge, scholarship and learning to improve the health of the world's people.

Membership to this honor society is by invitation to bacculaurate and graduate nursing students who demonstrate excellence and scholarship and to nurse leaders who exhibt exceptional achievements in nursing. There are more than 125,000 active members worldwide. STTI offers several education and research conferences including an annual research congress that presents the latest nursing research from around the world.


www.nursingsociety.org



1948: Lillian H. Holland initiated the first baccalaureate program of nursing in the state of Alabama.



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Lillian Holland Harvey, R.N. Ed.D.

Dr. Lillian Harvey was Dean of the Tuskegee Institute University School of Nursing from 1944-1973. Under her leadership the School of Nursing at Tuskegee became the first to offer a Bachelor of Science degree in nursing in the state of Alabama. The BSN program was initiated by Dr. Harvey in 1948. The first graduating class, who received their degrees in May 1953, consisted of 11 four-year students and three three-year students.

Dr. Harvey was credited with being a crusader for unrestricted professional recognition across the state and nation. She weathered the difficult times of racial discrimination and segregation during the 1940's. Among her many honors were the Award for Distinguished Achievement in Nursing and the American Nurses' Association Mary Mahoney Award.



http://nursing.ua.edu/hof/lillian_holland_harvey.htm



1948: The National Health Services

The British National Health Services (NHS) is a government funded health plan covering all citizens in Great Britain. It was established in 1948. By 1949 patients' demands for services exceeded estimates. This universal health care ssytem has encountered many problems, particularly limitations of services due to underfunding and long wait lists for treatments reaching a high of 1,263,000 patients awaiting hospital amissions in 1998.

The degree to which NHS has influenced mortality trends in Great Britain is used as a measuring stick as the source of evidence on its effectiveness. If medical care contributes to health, then national health service, to the degree to which it leads to medical care being more equitably distributed, could have an important influence on population health.



Roberts, M. (2008). Universal health care 60 years of the British National Health Service 1948-2008. Connecticut Medicine. 72(10). 593-596.

The Importance of nursing research.












Important links to nursing research information Nursing Planet-Research PageCurrent Nursing-Nursing TheoriesCocrane Review-Systematic ReviewsNational Institute of Nursing Research